LEADERSHIP IN NURSING - BY NURSE RABI'U H. MUSA
|Rabi'u Hassan Musa|
Depending on the way in which leaders exercised their authority, several studies in economics, psychology and management identify 2 major leadership styles:
i. Autocratic leadership style, and
ii. Democratic or creative leadership style.
Autocratic leaders allow for only a minimal team participation in the decision making process and sometimes even ignore the opinions of their subordinates.
ii. Democratic or creative leadership style
The democratic leaders delegate authority to their subordinates. The leaders informs subordinates about overall purpose and goal of organization and allows them to participate in decision making ad solving the problems. The leader values the individual characteristics and abilities of each subordinate.
Leadership styles exhibited by nurses
Below are literarily the leadership styles exhibited by nurses.
1. Relationally focused leadership style
This includes transformational leadership, individualized consideration and resonance leadership.
a. Transformational leadership
The leader motivate others to do more than they originally intended and often more than they thought possible.
b. Indivisualized consideration
The leadership focuses on understanding the needs of each follower and works continuously to get them to develop to their full potential.
c. Resonant leadership style
It is that leadership style that inspires, coaches, develops and includes others even in the face of adversity. This type of style is based on the emotional intelligence of the leaders.
2. Task focusedb(non-relationally focuded) leadership styles
Initiating structures refers to the degree to which leaders articulate clear role expectations, create well defined communication channels and focused on task and attaining goals. The task focused styles are primarily management by exception, laissez faire, transactional leadership, dissonant leadership styles and instrumental leadership.
a. Active management by exception
It focuses on monitoring task execution for any problems that might arise and correcting those problems to maintain current performance level.
b. Laissez faire style
Also known as permissive, free-rein, anarchic, and ultra-liberal style of leadership. They are conceptualized as passive avoidance of issues, decision making and accountability
c. Passive avoidance relationship
The leader tends to react only after problems have become serious to take corrective action, and often avoids making any decision at all.
d. Transactional leadership
It emphasizes the transaction or exchange that take place among leaders, colleagues and followers to accomplish work.
e. Dissonant leadership style
This is characterized by pacesetting and commanding styles that undermine the emotional foundations required to support and promote staff success.
f. Instrumental leadership style
It focuses on strategic and task oriented developmental function of leaders.
Need for effective leadership in nursing
Effective leadership is vital to provide guidance for solving complex problems related to nursing care delivery. It is critical in delivering high quality care, ensuring patient safety and facilitating positive staff development. It is needed in every level of nursing and there is no substitute for it. Leadership in nursing is required for making decisions. Delegating appropriately, resolving conflict and acting with integrity.
IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
1. Nurse leaders manager can handle the situation effectively
2. The work output and quality of work can be improved
3. The nurse job satisfaction and morale can be increased and the problem like absenteeism, turnover and shortage can be highly reduced
4. There will be healthy work environments
5. Positive outcome for organizations, patients and health care providers
6. Leadership is important to bring effective for effecting changes and achieving high standards of patient care
LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THEIR OUTCOMES
The under listed outcomes have been documented in relation to either relationally or non-relationally styles of leadership
1. Staff satisfaction with work, role and pay: this includes job satisfaction, satisfaction with their leader, satisfaction with job mobility options, job security, financial rewards and time to spend with patients
2. Staff relationship with work: which involves organizational commitment, nurses’ intent to stay, nurses intent to leave, actual retention, decrease in turnover, staff health and wellbeing, and job tension
3. Healthy work enviroment: This also includes nurse’s empowerment, culture and climate, role clarity, team work, and other characteristics that involves innovation, cohesion, nursing group collaboration, conflict management and nursing models of care.
4. Organizational productivity and effectiveness
CHARACTERISTICS/QUALITY OF AN EFFECTIVE LEADER
A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal and has a deep-rooted commitment to the goal that he/she will strive to achieve even if nobody follows him/her.
A mnemonic of the definition would be 3P’s viz: Person, People and purpose.
A person is the leader, peoples are the followers and purpose is the goal.
Affective leadership requires a good leader. An effective leader is a catalyst in facilitating. Effective interactions among man power, material and time.
The nursing administrator, supervisor, the head nurse and nursing staff in a team nursing all are the leaders. As la Monica, 1994 stated that “anytime a person is recognized authority and has followers who count on this persons’ expertise to carry out their objectives, the person is a leader”. She further suggests that a person is a leader if they provide assistance to others. Therefore, a student nurse is a leader to patients and clients, a staff nurse is also a leader to patients and clients and ward manager is a leader to all team members.
QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE LEADER
1. Temperament (nature of person)
2. Personality characteristics, and
3. Managerial competencies
4. Interpersonal relationships
5. Credibility and forward thinking
6. Professionalism, and
Regardless of the style of leadership selected, the nurse managers should be aware of the effect of the style adopted in hospital, unit or educational institution staff and on the level of work performance. In view of the above it is sometimes desirable to inculcate 2 or more styles of leadership for an effective leading of the organization, which intern can be interchanged when the need arises.
Conclusively, we come to realize different types of leadership styles and the importance of effective leadership in nursing. Effective leadership is of utmost importance in nursing profession, in that nurses deals with human lives, whereas, poorly organized leadership can lead to loss of lives and poor attainment of our goals.
THANK YOU PRESENTER NURSE RABI'U HASSAN MUSA
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